Central Florida Officials Association Basketball Information

New Backcourt Rule 9-9-1

Rule 9-9-1 states that “a player shall not be the first to touch the ball after it has been in team control in the frontcourt, if he/she or a teammate last touched or was touched by the ball in the frontcourt before it went to the backcourt.”

An exception was approved to note that any player who was already located in the backcourt may recover a ball that is deflected from the frontcourt by the defense.

Theresia Wynns, NFHS director of sports and officials, said the committee approved the exception to ensure that a team is not unfairly disadvantaged on a deflected pass.

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Thanks! Congratulations!! God Bless!

Thank you for your service.

L to R: Delores Connelly, Willie Bateman, Gerome Hightower, Chuck Pula, Greg Vanatta


Rutledge's Rules

  1. Be a good listener (use your receiver and not your transmitter). Be careful about what you hear.
  2. Talk softly but carry control in your voice.
  3. Great pre-games prevent many problems (no matter if your partner is unknown or your best friend).
  4. Run everywhere you could walk (Hustle back from reporting a foul).
  5. Sell the hard call only when you need to do so (Don't cry wolf on every call).
  6. Be competitive.
  7. Don't be a tempo changer.
  8. Don't threaten or give ultimatums.
  9. Be careful what you say (You never know how someone will take what you say).
  10. Keep a cool consistency.
  11. Prevent-Prevent-Prevent!
  12. Give a coach no opening to find fault (neat appearance, complete rules knowledge, optimum conditioning).
  13. Know when to use the quick whistle and the slow whistle.
  14. Be positive and enthusiastic at the introductions before the game (both with the captains and the coaches).
  15. Get the captains on your side and the other players will follow.
  16. Always count visibly (use a verbal count when you need to do so).
  17. Get the scorer and timer on your side (Your bench communications should always be the same: precise, concise, and from the same spot on the floor).
  18. Use the correct mechanics.
  19. There is no "magic spot" on the floor — keep moving.
  20. Conquer your fear of making a mistake.
  21. Overcome tension (the number one enemy of a great performance).
  22. Fatigue makes cowards of us all. Get in top condition.
  23. Be a quick starter, a good front runner, a plugger in the middle, and a strong finisher.
  24. Be realistic, not legalistic.
  25. Be a backyard mechanic, not just a bookworm.
  26. Be good rather than lucky; you don't have to practice to be lucky.
  27. Develop the emotional maturity to be at your best when the game is the toughest.
  28. Avoid the "I" sins: indifference, ignorance, and indecision.
  29. Every referee needs a wishbone, a backbone, and a funny bone.
  30. Get the call right and there is no comeback.
  31. Live in the now (present), not in the past or the future.
  32. Championship skills are special skills polished by practice and fully harnessed through understanding.
  33. A referee's greatest moment of happiness is to be tested beyond what he thought was his breaking point and to succeed.
  34. Effort should arise from strength of character rather than anticipation of reward.
  35. When success turns your head, you face failure.
  36. A pat on the back is a short distance from a kick in the pants.
  37. The best thing you can do when you don't like your wife's cooking is keep your mouth shut.
  38. The smallest deed is worth the greatest intention.
  39. Eliminate ail cosmetic mistakes (e.g., reporting mistakes).
  40. Give a person enough rope and he will hang himself.
  41. Make the most difficult task look easy.
  42. Don't make the same mental mistake •twice. Physical errors are excusable up to a point; mental mistakes are not. They result from lack of concentration.
  43. Develop a resolve for improvement and not revenge.
  44. Make every mistake in the book, try to make the same mistake only once, and learn from all your mistakes.
  45. Be ready to penalize. Don't be surprised.
  46. Leave no doubt about the singularity of your purpose — THE GAME.
  47. You must have an innate trust of your fellow man; give him the benefit of the doubt.
  48. Some of your best calls are no calls.
  49. Be ready to admit a mistake and correct it for the betterment of the contest
  50. "Out nice" them — always be courteous with your replies.

(From Don Rutledge, NCAA Division I Basketball Official)

Basic Officiating Terms

  1. Rotation - Live ball movement whereby the official in the lead position moves to get ball side
  2. Strong Side — The side of the floor that the "lead" and “trail” officials are on
  3. Weak Side — The side of the floor that the "center' official is on
  4. Ball Side - The side of the floor that the ball is on
  5. Close Down — Movement of the lead official to the near lane line
  6. Active Rotations — Looking for purposeful reasons to rotate to ensure that officials always have
    strong side and ball side in "harmony"
  7. Accelerated Pace — Alternate speeds that are required by the lead official to rotate to the new
    strong-side to meet the needs of the play
  8. Top Side — Moving high in the center position to the tip of the circle in refereeing in the position
    with a trail mentality
  9. Trail Mentality — Officiating in the center position as if you were officiating in the trial position by
    moving higher towards the tip of the circle and on to the court
  10. Purposeful movement — Moving a quick step down in the center position towards the endline to
    get an open angle in these 3 play actions:
    a Quick jump shot.
    b Quick drive to the basket.
    c Quick drive to elbow of key (endline and free throw line juncture)
  11. Switches — Changing positions during a dead ball after a foul is called; calling official reports and
    (typically) goes tableside, tableside official replaces the calling official
  12. Primary Coverage — The area of responsibility for each official
  13. Secondary Coverage — Help you can provide outside of your area of responsibility to assist one of
    your partners
  14. Dual Coverage — The areas on the floor where areas of responsibility between officials overlap
  15. Primary Whistle — First whistle that comes from the official that is responsible for the
  16. Secondary Whistle — Second whistle in the one, two cadence that is blown after the official with
    primary responsibility is given a chance to blow
  17. RSBQ — Rhythm, speed, balance, quickness
  18. Referee the Defense — Judging the legality of the defensive player on I-on-I situations
  19. Call the Obvious — Call the fouls that everyone in the gym sees — the ones that even grandma
    can see from the nosebleed section
  20. Incidental Contact — Contact that occurs between two or more players that are in equally
    favorable/unfavorable positions but a foul has not been committed
  21. Trust Your Partners — Having faith in your partners to blow the whistle in their primary and not
    to interfere with their judgments unless there is "high certainty" that secondary coverage views
    require a whistle in noting an obvious infraction/foul
  22. Good Partnering — Trusting your partner, but knowing when you have to help them out and get a
    foul they may not be able to see
  23. Staying in Your Primary — Only making calls in your area of responsibility
  24. Positioning Adjustments — Moving at your position to create an open angle
  25. Action Area — Anywhere on the floor where we have a competitive match-up (pick-and roll,
    eminent attempt to score, double high screen, multiple defenders)
  26. Certainty Calls — Calls that can be validated by video tape
  27. High Certainty Calls — Calls made in crucial moments or in secondary coverage areas in a game
    that are obvious to everyone in the gym (end-of-game situations, etc.)
  28. Dual Whistles — Whistles from more than one official that come at the same time, for plays that
    have overlapping areas of responsibility
  29. Double Whistles — Primary and secondary whistles that occur from different officials seeing
    separate angles to a play
  30. High Slot Positioning — Normally no higher than the tip of the circle
  31. Low Slot Positioning — Normally no lower than the bottom tip of the circle
  32. Open Angles — When an official is able to see between the match-up and observe the defensive
    and offensive player
  33. Closed Angles — When an official is not able to see between the match-up and observe the
    defensive player (straight-lined)
  34. Competitive Match-Up — When a defensive player is closely guarding an offensive player
  35. Mirroring the Ball — Lead positioning anytime the ball is below the bottom tip of the circle. The
    lead must direct his primary attention to both players in a I-on-I situation.
  36. Pinching the Paint — Lead must quickly step into the lane area and create an open angle by
    pinching the paint on plays that come from the center sider plays down the middle of the key and
    on plays that come directly down the lead's side lane line. Step in, and then leave the lane.
  37. Start, Develop, Finish — Have patience! For high certainty calls watch the play from beginning to


CFOA Basketball Training Classes

Training Classes for the 2018-19 basketball schedule are starting September 5 and ending October 15. Classes will be held on Mondays and Wednesdays from 6:30 to 9:00 pm at Oveido High School, 601 King St, Oviedo, FL 32765.

Classes will include rules knowledge as well as on-court training and film review. This class is mandatory for all new and transfer officials with less than 3 years officiating experience. 

The cost for the Training Class is $25 for non-CFOA members. 

To register, please email Tim Bateman at tb.basketball@zoho.com and Carlos Childress at bballvp@cfoa.com.


FHSAA Basketball Rule Exam dates 9/28 - 11/9, 2018

50 true - false questions. No time limit. No make up exams. NFHS exams. You can save and exit as many times as necessary. Once you click the SUBMIT button you are done. No going back or additional attempts. Learn the rules, take your time, and read carefully. Do not wait until the last day. Your score is important to the FHSAA and CFOA.


Officials Registration Set to Open July 16th, 2018

2018-19 Registration Deadlines



Initial Deadline

Last day to register
(Late fee goes into effect after this date)



















2/22 (FFB only)

2018-19 Exam Schedule

  • Rules exams have no time limit
  • No make-up exam offered.
  • Exams are created and written by the NFHS.
  • Officials can save and exit the exam as many times as necessary. Once the “submit exam” button is clicked your test will be graded and your one (1) attempt is completed.
  • Exams that are incomplete once the deadline passes will be graded as is.


50 questions


8/10 – 9/21


9/28 – 11/9





*These dates are subject to change.



The CFOA Basketball Uniform is as follows:

Gray shirt with black striping (FHSAA patch on left sleeve, American Flag on back, top center)
Black Pants (No belts or belt loops)
Black socks (crew length, mid-thigh)
Black shoes
Black CFOA Jacket (Purchase Officials Supplies, Inc.)

Basketball Uniform

Tony, Frank & Kevin


CFOA Basketball Rules Corner

Send in a rules questions that you have had in a game situation, or a general rules question. The answer will be researched (FHSAA rules) and published each week. Your submission could potentially help other officials in our organization. Ask a question today!

First and Last Name: *

E-mail Address: *

Contact Phone Number (with area code):
Not required, but if we need further clarification in order to best answer the question, we will call rather than email - when provided.

Rules Question: *
Please be specific!

Security Check!*




Rule Interpretation

A defender in a marked lane space for a F.T. may not break the plain of the F.T. line (toward the F.T. shooter) prior to the ball hitting the rim, (Delayed F.T. VIOLATION). A defender on the lane may still block out the F.T. shooter in the lane area on release of the ball and may block out over the F.T. lane line (marked semi-circle area) after the ball hits the rim without violation. HOWEVER, if the defender bumps, hits, clears the F.T. shooter, a FOUL is to be called, prior to or after the ball hitting the rim.

- Jim Mills, CFOA Rule Interpreter


CFOA Basketball on Facebook


Below is a feed from the CFOA Basketball Facebook wall. If your browser does not show the feed, you may need to upgrade, turn on JavaScript, switch browsers or set your browser to accept blocked content. Otherwise, go to the Facebook Website.

Previous Basketball Announcements

July 2018

Thais Dejesus

Thais Dejesus was nominated by the CFOA and was named Rookie of the Year by the FHSAA. The CFOA is proud to have her as one of our officials.

2017-2018 NFHS Basketball Rules Changes

1-13-2: The coaching box shall be outlined outside the side of the court on which the scorer's and timer's table and team benches are located. The area shall be bounded by a line drawn 28 feet from the end line towards the Division line. At this point a line drawn from the sideline toward the team bench becomes the end of the coaching box going towards the end line.

Note: State Associations may alter the length and placement of the 28 foot (maximum) coaching box.

Effective Immediately. Tape may be used to extend the 14-foot line to 28 feet.

Rationale: The restriction of the coaching box penalizes the level of communication between coach and player. Allowing a coach freedom to move within the new box between the 28’ mark and the end line provides a coach more access to coach his/her players.

2-9-1: When a foul occurs, an official shall signal the timer to stop the clock. The official shall verbally inform the offender, then with finger(s) of two hands, indicate to the scorer the number of the offender and the number of free throws.

Rationale: To minimize foul reporting errors, that occur between the officials and the scorekeepers when the information gets lost in the translation. Two handed reporting is easier for the scorekeepers to see and comprehend in addition to being less confusing.

3-4-1d: There are no color/design restrictions in the area of the team jersey from the imaginary line at the base of the neckline to the top of the shoulder and in the corresponding area on the back of the jersey. There are restrictions on what identifying names may be placed in this area (see Article 3-4-4).

Rationale: Provide guidance on the forthcoming restrictions for this area of the jersey.

3-4-4: Identifying name(s) shall adhere to the following:

a. If used, lettering with school name, school’s nickname, school logo, player’s nameand /or abbreviation of the official school name shall be placed horizontally on the jersey.
b. The panel in the shoulder area of the jersey on the back may be used for placing an identifying name as well.

Rationale: Provide guidance to persons purchasing uniforms in determining what wording should go onto the jersey.

4-48 NEW: Warning for Coach/Team Conduct
A warning to a coach/team for misconduct is an administrative procedure by an official, which is recorded in the scorebook by the scorer and reported to the Head Coach:
Art. 1 . . . For conduct, such as that described in rule 10-5-1a,b,d,e,f; 10-5-2; 10-5-4 the official shall warn the head coach unless the offense is judged to be major, in which case a technical foul shall be assessed. Note: A warning is not required prior to calling a technical foul.
Art. 2 . . . For the first violation of rule 10-6-1, the official shall warn the head coach unless the offense is judged to be major, in which case a technical foul shall be assessed. Note: A warning is not required prior to calling a technical foul.

Rationale: Stopping play and making sure that the bench and the coach know that an official warning has been given, sends a clear message to everyone in the gym and impacts the behavior of the coach, and in some cases the behavior of the opposing coach. This change in behavior creates a better atmosphere and many times avoids the need to administer a technical foul.

2018 FHSAA Finals Basketball Officials

2018 Final Four basketball officials
2018 FHSAA Final Four Basketball Officials

1A State Final 2018
1A State Final Basketball Officials

15 Minute Warmup
 6:38 p.m. 15:00 Set game clock to 15 minutes. Sound horn to open floor for pre-game warm-up period. Officials report to floor.
 6:41 p.m. 12:00 Coaches/captains meeting with officiating crew.
 6:43 p.m. 10:00 Referee checks official scorebook.
 6:52 p.m. 1:00 Horn sounds to end pre-game warm-up period. Teams report to their respective benches.
 6:53 p.m. 0:00 Public address announcer begins pre-game script. Player and coach introductions, followed by National Anthem.
 7:00 p.m. 8:00 Reset game clock to 8 minutes. Opening tip.


Please adhere to this schedule. Dress properly and enjoy--remember to wear the new shirts, be early. Thanks for a great year, it is a pleasure representing you and the CFOA.
- Kim, Chap and the rest of the staff

View older news


CFOA Basketball
Contact Information


CFOA President:
Allen Cramer

Vice President - Basketball:
Carlos Childress

Assignment Officer - Basketball:
Kim Fessler

At Large Director - Basketball:
Chuck Pula

2018-19 Committees

Basketball Evaluation
Gino Smith (Chair)
Rodney Brown
Chrystal Ford

Robert Sumpter (Chair)
Anthony Gordon
Jon Mac Creighton

Carl Blair (Chair)
Mark Rossi
Trish Duncan
Pat Sanchez
Mario Dixon

Julian Hale

Tim Bateman (Chair)
Felix Martinez
Mike Lindvic

Rules Interpreter
Jim Mills

Basketball Exam Dates

FHSAA Basketball Rule Exam dates: 9/28 - 11/9, 2018

50 true - false questions. No time limit. No make up exams. NFHS exams. You can save and exit as many times as necessary. Once you click the SUBMIT button you are done. No going back or additional attempts. Learn the rules, take your time, and read carefully. Do not wait until the last day. Your score is important to the FHSAA and CFOA.


FHSAA Official Basketball Training

2017-18 FHSAA Basketball Rules Presentation

This presentation is available as a PDF or Power Point presentation:



NOTE: The image above links to a large Power Point presentation. Please allow sufficient time for it to download.

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